04 Apr 2016 |
Research article |
Materials & Manufacturing
Additive Manufacturing – A Must See Exhibition at the ÉTS Library!
Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, refers to a process used to manufacture three-dimensional objects. Moving through time and space, this exhibition stems from the power of creativity and ideas which prevails at the École de technologie supérieure (ÉTS), in Montréal. By displaying pieces made by using additive manufacturing, the three-dimensional printing of common and technical objects, the show is designed to promote aspects of a research field situated somewhere between creativity and innovation.
The exhibition showcases a number of student achievements in rapid prototyping and a selection of experiments made by the Shape Memory Alloys and Intelligent Systems Laboratory (LAMSI) in biomedical research, as well as collaborations with student clubs. Without the machinery, or 3D printers, there could be no additive manufacturing. This is why part of the exhibition also introduces the design and production of high-performance printer parts designed by ÉTS graduates.
Additive Manufacturing – The Rationale
Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, refers to the process of shaping an object by adding successive layers of material based on a numerical model. It is the opposite of machining methods, which produce a part by removing material with a machine tool, and is also different from other shaping processes, such as molding, which reshape the material.
Whether the end use is for recreational purposes or for functional purposes, additive manufacturing has many advantages. It enables the design of unusual or very complex shapes, some of which would be unfeasible with conventional methods. The wide variety of processes and materials (plastics, metals, ceramics, organic, and even biological), as well as their forms (liquid, filament, granules, powder, nanoparticles, or cells in suspension), add another dimension to this method.
Additive manufacturing is used for rapid prototyping, rapid tool making, production of marketable objects, and even replacement of obsolete parts that can no longer be found on the market. Its applications are present in all areas of activity: aerospace, medical, consumer goods, or automotive.
Because it is free from the design limitations of traditional technologies and because many of the 3D printing processes are accessible to everyone, additive manufacturing now has many supporters, including business leaders, specialists, scientists, engineers, artists, and amateurs. For more information on the subject, please see the article entitled Additive Manufacturing: An Introductory Overview (1 of 4) from Professor Sylvie Doré.
The exhibit entitled “La fabrique additive” (additive manufacturing), is presented from March 29 to May 1, 2016, on the main floor of the ÉTS library, at the following location: 1100 Rue Notre-Dame Ouest (Peel Street, south corner), Montréal (QC), H3C 1K3.
Here are some of the features you will see at the ÉTS exhibition:
- Additive manufacturing courses available to professionals and students;
- The recently created ÉTS Research Chair on Engineering of Processes, Materials, and Structures for Additive Manufacturing;
- The Shape Memory Alloys and Intelligent Systems Laboratory LAMSI, using additive manufacturing in many research projects;
- The Imaging and Othopaedics Research Laboratory LIO, working in collaboration with the Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal research centre, and the Shape Memory Alloys and Intelligent Systems Laboratory (LAMSI) to develop a new type of spinal implants;
- A start-up company, Dyze Design, formed by ÉTS graduate engineers, specialized in the development of high-performance 3D printer parts;
- Student clubs such as Dronolab and C-Class Project, involved in the design of parts to increase performance for international competitions in their fields.
Additive Manufacturing Course
One of the courses in additive manufacturing, the Cours de technologies de fabrication additive – MEC627 (additive manufacturing technologies), was created in 1996 by Professor Sylvie Doré. This course offers students an introduction to the methods and systems of additive manufacturing and an understanding of their role in accelerated product development.
Twenty years later, a new course on the advanced aspects of additive manufacturing (SYS862) was created. This Masters level course was given for the first time during the 2016 winter session, by Professor Vladimir Brailovski.
Research Chair – Additive Manufacturing
The main objective of the new ÉTS Research Chair on Engineering of Processing, Materials, and Structures for Additive Manufacturing, held by Professor Vladimir Brailovsky, is to study the relationships between design, processes, and materials. In addition, this includes the application of various additive manufacturing processes in aerospace and medicine. The additive manufacturing technology was chosen for its great freedom of design and its high potential for transformation.
For more information, please read the article Why does ÉTS have an Additive Manufacturing Research Chair? describing the Chair held by Professor Vladimir Brailovski.
The Shape Memory Alloys and Intelligent Systems Laboratory LAMSI, co-directed by Vladimir Brailovski and Patrick Terriault, focuses on the design and development of components in shape memory alloys for various industrial applications. Additive manufacturing is one of the methods used in several of their research projects.
There are several pathologies of the spine such as scoliosis, herniated discs, dislocations, fractures, neurological injuries, etc. To correct these, orthopedic surgeons must perform a spinal fusion, an operation which results in one fixed bone replacing a mobile joint to stop motion at that joint segment. Although they may experience some loss of mobility as a result of the operation, patients see a significant improvement in their quality of life.
The collaboration between Professor Yvan Petit, of the Imaging and Othopaedics Research Laboratory (LIO) and the Canada Research Chair in Engineering Innovations in Spinal Trauma, Professor Vladimir Brailovski, of the Shape Memory Alloys and Intelligent Systems Laboratory (LAMSI), and the Centre de recherche de l’Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal, is intended to develop a new type of spinal implant: variable-stiffness rods fixed to the vertebrae using a combination of pedicle screws and hooks. The solution could solve several problems presently caused by the rigidity of the instrumentation, such as the degeneration of adjacent discs as a result of strong pressures or fractures.
To do so, biomechanical tests and numerical simulations were conducted on instrumented spines in pigs. To digitally reconstruct the geometry of the specimen and the spinal implants (3D model), sectional CT scans (Computed Tomography) were taken. The specimen was then subjected to mechanical loading, simulating various postures and movements, to measure pressure on the discs adjacent to the instrumentation and the strain on the anchors. To validate the 3D model, the results of the biomechanical tests were compared with numerical simulations. The validated model could then be used to test new spinal implants and help optimize their design.
For more information, please see the article entitled Optimizing Spinal Implants through Experimental and Numerical Modeling by authors Yann Facchinello and Martin Brummund.
This start-up company has chosen to focus on the development of innovations in the 3D printing field. They concentrated specifically on two components: the extruder, the device that pushes material into the printer, and the nozzle, the heating element which melts the material. Their first marketed products include the DyzeXtrudertm and the DyzEndtm nozzle. The Dyze Design nozzle can work with all usable plastics and withstand temperatures of 500°C (932°F).
The Dronolab student club of the École de technologie supérieure (ÉTS), in Montréal, designs drones for missions in various competitions. The drone that is currently in operation is the quadrotor type. The main tasks of the drone are to gather information in the form of images that will be analyzed to map out terrain, calculate surfaces and volumes, and conduct search and rescue missions.
The frame assembly is the main part of a drone. It supports the whole platform – arms, electronics, and payload – and is subject to significant mechanical stress. Normally, this piece is assembled with ten different parts, as it is difficult to manufacture in one step using conventional composite manufacturing methods. All these different parts make the assembly a long and labour-intensive process, and require the participation of several subcontractors, thereby lengthening the production cycle.
The Dronolab student club approached the Shape Memory Alloys and Intelligent Systems Laboratory (LAMSI) for the manufacture of their quadrotor drone printed frame assembly. As part of Thomas Desbordes’ Master’s project, the solution was to manufacture the frame assembly in composite materials, using 3D printing.
In the C-Class Project, ÉTS students designed and manufactured a catamaran and participated in the “2015 Little Cup” as the first student group from Québec in the history of this race.
These catamarans, 25 feet (7.6 m) long and 14 feet (4.3 m) wide, are known worldwide for their exceptional performance. Equipped with rigid wings and lifted on hydrofoils, they literally fly above the water, reaching speeds of 60 km/h, and can exceed three times the speed of the wind. Their total mass has a major impact on their performance. The team reviewed the design of several structural parts to reduce their weight and optimize their performance. Additive manufacturing met the various constraints of the project: budget, time limits, complexity in fabrication, etc.
Xavier Grossmann and Carl Chamberland, of the C-Class Project, worked with Charles Simoneau, of the LAMSI, to design and manufacture a mast foot and support using an aluminum alloy (AlSi10Mg). These parts are positioned on the forward crossmember and support the mast foot and the martingale (dolphin striker). They must withstand compressions of 15 kN (3,375 lbf), and require a safety factor of 3.
For more information on this project, please see the following article: Design and Additive Manufacturing of Mast Foot and Support for a C-Class Caramaran from Charles Simoneau, Xavier Grossmann and Julien Chaussée.
Professors Sylvie Doré and Vladimir Brailovski, undergratuate and graduate students from ÉTS, Victor Boutitie, Martin Brummund, Xavier Grossmann, Bruno Jetté, Charles Simoneau, Thomas Desbordes and, Yann Facchinello and Patrick Marcotrigiano from Dyze Design.
Project Direction Guy Gosselin, ÉTS, Director, Department of ÉTS library
Project Management and Exhibition Curator Soraya Bassil
Design, Scenography and Graphic Design La Camaraderie
Communications and Technical Assistance ÉTS library team